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Updated 2024 Teacher Manual

This is the blog post form of the Teacher Manual. This is also available in the Teacher Reference section.

Table of Contents

Download pdf version

Phonology Lesson Plan

1. Alphabet Work

Letter Naming Flashcards (Phases 0-2) Alphabet Letter Writing (handwriting focus)

3-5 Minutes Phase 1 Instructions

Letter Naming

Alphabet Work begins with students and the teacher singing the alphabet song chorally.

Throughout Term One, the slides guide you through the following activities:

  • naming each letter as it appears on the slide
  • naming letters forwards and backwards
  • a variety of letter-naming retrieval activities

Toward the end of Term One, students will begin practising letter naming using the Playberry Laser Alphabet Card Deck. The Alphabet slides will guide you through using the Card Deck in the following ways:

  • naming uppercase letters in alphabetical order
  • naming letters in random order
  • naming lowercase letters alphabetically
  • naming lowercase letters randomly
  • making a mix of upper and lower case randomly

If you’re using a phonological awareness program that includes letter naming, omit the letter naming section and only do it with the slides (as above).

Handwriting – choices of fonts

As different schools use different handwriting script fonts, we have included the Playberry and the South Australian Modern Cursive  Fonts. Schools need to develop agreements on which font they will teach and when they will teach the print, kicks and linked versions of these.

Teachers will need to select the slide with the font they are teaching.

Phase 2 Instructions

Letter Naming

Week 1: The Alphabet slides will guide you through various letter-naming activities.

From Week 2: The Alphabet Deck should be used, following instructions on the slides.

If the class requires more practice with letter naming, continue with the Alphabet Deck. The Alphabet Deck can also be used in Tier 2 Intervention.

If you are using a phonological awareness program that includes letter naming, omit the letter naming section and only do it with the slides (as above).

Handwriting

Students need to be writing on personal whiteboards and in writing books. When to use either depends on your purpose. We recommend that students use books at least once weekly.

Select the slide with the font you are teaching.

Students write the alphabet (lower case) alphabetically on their personal whiteboard (or book): a – m on one line and n – z on the next. As they write each letter, they name it as a group (chorally). 

Students write the alphabet (lower case) on their whiteboard (or book) alphabetically: a – m on one line and n – z on the next. As they write each letter, they name it as a group (chorally). 

The teacher:

  • sets the pace – as fast as possible, as slow as necessary
  • quietly corrects any incorrect formation, noting incorrectly formed letters
  • Selects one or two letters to re-teach to the class, modelling letter formation three times – using appropriate language for letter starting positions, etc.

Students practise a row of each letter, circling their best-formed letters. The teacher scans the room, correcting grip and letter formation, keeping a close eye on students needing more support.

.

Phase 3-6 Instructions

Handwriting

Students need to be writing on personal whiteboards and in writing books. When to use either depends on your purpose. We recommend that students use books at least once weekly.

Select the slide with the font you are teaching.

Students write the alphabet (lower case) alphabetically on their personal whiteboard (or book): a – m on one line and n – z on the next. As they write each letter, they name it as a group (chorally). We recommend teaching cursive kicks as early as phase 3.

Students write the alphabet (lower case) on their whiteboard (or book) alphabetically: a – m on one line and n – z on the next. As they write each letter, they name it as a group (chorally). 

The teacher:

  • sets the pace – as fast as possible, as slow as necessary
  • quietly corrects any incorrect formation, noting incorrectly formed letters
  • Selects one or two letters to re-teach to the class, modelling letter formation three times – using appropriate language for letter starting positions, etc.

 

Students practise a row of each letter, circling their best-formed letters. The teacher scans the room, correcting grip and letter formation, keeping a close eye on students needing more support

2. Reading Card Drill

Reading Card Review Deck

All Phases, 5 minutes


This is a multisensory routine where the students see a phonogram (front of card) and chorally recite the phoneme or phonemes that the phonogram represents. This drill is repeated daily to the point of automaticity and over-learning. Some students store Grapheme Phoneme Correspondences (GPCs) in long-term memory faster than others. However, the drills are helpful for all students, harmful to none and critical for some. 

Phase 1-6 Instructions

Reading cards are added to the deck once a grapheme has been taught as a new teaching point from the slides. The deck grows as each new grapheme is introduced. When the deck becomes too big, it can be halved, each half being reviewed on alternate days (this can start from Phase 2). In Phase 1, the whole deck should be reviewed daily.

When retrieval of a card has become fast and automatic, move that card to a separate review pack to be revised weekly or fortnightly. If a grapheme has been forgotten, it can be reintroduced to the daily review deck at any stage.

 

Daily review routine:

  • hold the deck facing the class – students will see the front card
  • students chorally pronounce the phoneme(s) for the grapheme shown
  • cards are placed down as they are read
  • if multiple students make an error, place the card into a second pile and carry on
    • (No comment required)
  • when the deck is complete, redo the cards that were placed onto the second pile
  • if students error again, say the keyword (“ā like in alien…”) – this grapheme will need to be retaught
  • shuffle the deck daily

 

Where a phonogram represents multiple phonemes which have been taught:

  • Show the card, and students say both phonemes in the order on the back. For example, the ‘i’ card has the phonemes (ĭ) and (ī) and are both said by the students.
  • Keywords will need to be given by the teacher until the grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) is secure and students can independently say the phonemes without needing the keyword prompt. For example, the teacher says ‘igloo’, and students say ‘(ĭ)’; the teacher says ‘iPad’ and students say ‘(ī).’

It may feel like you are moving too fast for the class. Aim to bring the class up to a fast pace and keep them there. Otherwise, the pace will drop to an unengaging groan! The class must not be held to the pace of the slowest students. All students attend better if the pace is maintained. Going too slowly causes a drop in student attention.

3. Rule Revision / Retrieval

Rule Reciting/ Retrieval Activities

All Phases, 3-5 minutes

New rules or concepts are taught in the ‘New Teaching Point’ section within the slides. An ‘I Do, We Do, You Do’ approach is used when each new rule or concept is first taught. This rule or concept is then reviewed in subsequent weeks using spaced retrieval practice.

Revision Drill

Spelling Rules and Concept slides are read or recited aloud chorally with the whole class.

Lesson 1 (each week) has all the spelling rule slides taught in that phase so far. The slides begin with the complete rule or definition and then progress to having keywords blocked out so students have to retrieve them. 

On other days of the week, the slides prompt students to apply learned rules or concepts. Students must write whole words or sentences in response to questions on their whiteboards. This gives the teacher feedback on whether the rule or concept has been mastered. 

The recitation of rules must be fast-paced; otherwise, engagement will be lost.

4. Spelling Review Drill

Individual Grapheme Spelling Review

All Phases, 5 minutes

Previously taught graphemes are reviewed daily as part of the Spelling Review Drill. Suggested graphemes are included in the slides; however, the teacher may manually add particular graphemes that need revising to the Weekly Planner. The graphemes will be read from the Weekly Planner.

Spelling Review Drill

There are two Spelling Review slides. Stop at the first slide and follow these steps:

  • The teacher reads phoneme (f) from the Weekly Planner
  • students say (f) is f and write the letter ‘f.’
  • modelling of this step may be required at the beginning of Phase 1
  • When a phoneme is represented by more than one grapheme, the keyword is given to show which spelling to use (keywords are included in the Weekly Planner):

The teacher reads the phonogram (f) and gives the keyword (photo). Students say “(f) is ‘ph’” and then write the letters ‘ph’

  • this is repeated for all GPCs from the Weekly Planner as well as any others that the teacher has manually added
  • students ‘chin’ their whiteboard at the end of the drill

 

*The teacher monitors students (circulates and looks at whiteboards/books) as students complete this drill – if all students show mastery of the GPCs, there is no need to mark them as a group.

*If modelling of this drill is still required, the teacher can write on the blank Spelling Review Slide.

*Letters inside brackets represent a phoneme (f)

*Underlined letters represent letter names f

5. Words to Read and

6. Word Reading Fluency 

All Phases, 6-10 minutes

 

There are two sections where ‘Words to Read’ appears. The first section includes review words containing words with previously taught graphemes. The second section follows the new teaching point and incorporates words containing the new grapheme.

The Reading Fluency slide appears after the review’ Words to Read’.

Words to Read Slides

Students read the words chorally. If errors are made within the choral reading, the teacher must prompt the class to decode and blend the word.

Students who’ve not yet orthographically mapped a word or spelling pattern must decode and blend to read the word.

PHASE 1: you may begin with the top row and include the second and third rows when students are blending with more ease.

Reading Fluency Slide (1-2 minutes)

This is designed to provide multiple exposures of words with previously taught GPCs to build up word reading fluency. The Reading Fluency slide is read from left to right using the same process as above, depending on the students’ stage of reading development. The slide can be read up to three times in one lesson. The teacher uses a pointer to help pace the exercise.

PHASE 1: you may begin with the top row and include the second and third rows when students are blending with more ease.

7. Words to Spell

Revision Words to Spell

All Phases, 5 minutes

There are two sections where Words to Spell appear. The first section includes review words containing previously taught phonemes. The second follows the new teaching point and incorporates words containing the new grapheme. Each word will be read from the Weekly Planner.  

Words to Spell (Phases 1-3)

Stop at the first slide and follow these steps:

One-Syllable Words:

  • teacher reads word (sat)
  • students say the word (sat) and finger spell as they segment the phonemes (s) (ă) (t)
  • students write the word as they repeat the phonemes (s) (ă) (t)
  • students read the word (sat)
 

Repeat for all words in the Weekly Planner. Modelling and scaffolding of this process will be required.

Two Syllable Words:

  • teacher reads word (blanket) using spelling voice
  • students say the word (blanket)
  • teacher asks ‘first syllable?’
  • students say (blan) and finger spell (b) (l) (ă) (n)
  • students write the first syllable as they repeat the phonemes (b) (l) (ă) (n)
  • The teacher asks, ‘Second syllable?’
  • students say (ket) and finger spell (k) (ĕ) (t)
  • students write the second syllable as they repeat the phonemes (k) (ĕ) (t)
  • students read the word (blanket)

Repeat for all words in the Weekly Planner.

Teachers should actively monitor students during this time and ask for corrections to be made as they see them.

Go to the second Words to Spell slide, which includes the words on it. 

Words can be read / spelt with letter names at the end of this drill (time permitting)

Words to Spell (From Phase 4)

Complete the above process without breaking each word into its syllables or phonemes.

  • The teacher reads the word in spelling voice, accenting the syllables (crē/ā/tion)
  • Students repeat the word in spelling voice, accenting the syllables (crē/ā/tion)
  • Students write the word (creation)

8. New Teaching Point (not included in every lesson)

Introduce new Grapheme / Spelling Rule / Concept

(including handwriting of new grapheme if applicable)

All Phases, 3-5 minutes

2. Reading Card Drill

Reading Card Review Deck

All Phases, 5 minutes


New Teaching Points include the introduction of new phonograms, spelling rules, grammar concepts and some morphology. These concepts will be presented in different ways depending on the content.

All elements of the New Teaching Point are included in the slides. There are also embedded voice recordings that can be used to assist in explicitly introducing new phonemes.

The New Teaching Point section of the lesson is designed to be a quick, explicit introduction to a new concept and should take 5 to 10 minutes, including all aspects of handwriting.

 

9. Words to Read

6-10 New Words to Read

All Phases , 1-2 minutes)

Words to Read Slides

Students read words from the new teaching point chorally. If errors are made within the choral reading, the teacher must prompt the class to decode and blend the word.

PHASE 1: Students don’t have to read all six words. The class can be built up to to six words as their blending becomes more automatic.

10. Words to Spell

New Words to Spell

All Phases, 5 minutes

There are two sections where ‘Words to Spell’ appear. The first section includes review words containing previously taught phonemes. The second follows the new teaching point and incorporates words containing the new grapheme. Each word will be read from the Weekly Planner.  

NOT ALL WORDS HAVE TO BE USED. However, the goal is to work towards this. 

See section: “7 Words To Spell” for the routine.”

11. Heart (Irregular) Words

Read, Tap, Spell

All Phases, 2 minutes

Heart (Irregular) Words contain phone-grapheme correspondences (GPCs), which have not yet been taught, making the GPCs irregular for the students. Throughout all phase slides, Heart Words are introduced and reviewed using spaced retrieval practice. 

The process for introducing new Heart Words:

Read the word to the students, explain its meaning and use it in a sentence:

“Said is the past tense of ‘say,’ like in the sentence ‘Tim said he was sick.’”

  • segment the phonemes in the word using fingerspelling

“The word said has three phonemes (s) (ĕ) (d).”

  • Point out phonograms that are regular (or that they already know):

“The sound (s) is spelt with the letter s, and the sound (d) is spelt with d.”

  • point out the highlighted (irregular) grapheme(s), explaining what sounds the phonograms represent:

“The sound (ĕ) is represented with ai in the word said.”

  • tap each letter name down the arm from the shoulder – s a i d
  • slide hand from shoulder down the arm as the word is pronounced – said
  • repeat three times
  • write and spell with letter names: s a i d


When reviewing Heart Words in subsequent lessons, tap and say the letter names down the arm and write the word using letter names as above. Do this once for each word.

*Heart Words with pink hearts are brand new to the Scope and Sequence and must be explicitly taught. Heart Words with green hearts have been introduced previously in the Scope and Sequence, so you can follow the directions for Reviewing Heart Words from day 1.

12. Dictation

1-2 Sentences

5 minutes

Each lesson has at least one dictation sentence. These sentences are designed to practice using the rules, concepts and spelling patterns most recently taught. Dictation is the most cognitively demanding task, so teachers must refrain from talking to the class while writing dictation sentences.

There are two ways that the dictation slides may be used.

Option 1:

  • students read the sentence from the screen chorally (twice)
  • go to the blank dictation slide, and students get ready to write
  • The teacher reads the sentence aloud again, and students repeat the sentence twice
  • students write the sentence
    • IMPORTANT – dictation should be completed in silence for students to hold the words in their working memory

Option 2:

  • start at the blank dictation slide
  • The teacher reads the sentence twice, and students repeat the sentence chorally twice
  • students write the sentence
    • IMPORTANT – dictation should be completed in silence for students to hold the words in their working memory

Use the dictation slide for students to check and correct their sentences. This can be done in many ways at the teacher’s discretion.

Extending Advanced Students

Tip 18 (above) gives suggestions for extending advanced students. Depending on what explicit writing instruction you have been doing with students, additional ideas could be:

  • Expand one of the sentences with but, because, or so
  • Add an appositive (if applicable) to a sentence
  • Add a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) to one of the sentences to add a clause
  • Convert one of the sentences into a complex sentence
  • Change one of the sentences to another sentence type – declarative, interrogative, exclamatory or imperative.

13. Connected Text

Fluency Work – “I Read”, “You Read”, “We Read”, Choral Read or Paired Reading

All Phases, 3-5 minutes

Connected texts are included each week, including heart words and words containing previously taught phonograms, spelling rules and concepts. The purpose of these texts is to develop passage reading fluency and to expand vocabulary.

Process for reading a connected text in Phases 1-3:

  • teacher reads the text while students track – ‘I read’
  • students read the text with the teacher – ‘We read.’
  • students read text chorally – ‘You read’

 

Process for reading a connected text in Phase 4-6:

  • teacher and students chorally read the whole text together

 

The connected texts can be used at other times, including Pair Reading, Fluency Pairs and Tier 2 intervention.

14. Vocabulary

1-3 Words from Connected Text or Phonology List

All Phases, 1-2 minutes

Each lesson has at least one vocabulary slide that provides definitions for any Tier Two or Three vocabulary used within the slides or the Connected Text for that day.

These can be discussed with students within the Phonology lesson. The teacher can also use them in more depth within other Vocabulary teaching.

Morphology Lessons

Introduction

Morphology lessons have been incorporated into Playberry Laser T1-2 from 2024. Dedicated morphology lessons follow our morphology scope and sequence, comprising one weekly lesson in phases 2-5 and all in phases 6-7.

Morphology lessons come in two types:

1. Standard Morphology Lessons

These begin in phase two, comprising one lesson per week, and continue to phases six and seven, where morphology becomes the focus of all lessons.

From phases two to five, there are two forms of standard morphology lessons: introduction lessons, which are dedicated to introducing a new morpheme, and revision lessons for consolidating newly learned morphemes as well as some other previously learned content. Lessons also incorporate some phonology revision.

In phases six and seven, a new morpheme is introduced in every lesson.

Phase 
When Morphology is taught

Phase 2-3

The fourth of the five weekly lessons (Thursday during a typical week).

Phase 4-5

The fourth of the four weekly lessons.

Phase 6-7

Every lesson.

2. Catch-up morphology Lessons

 

Because 2024 sees the introduction of morphology to our resource, some students in existing Playberry Laser schools won’t have received morphology instruction prior to their point in the Playberry Laser scope and sequence. Classes new to Playberry Laser (entering the program higher than phase two) will also need to be caught up with the morphology instruction they have missed. Morphology catch-up lessons have been developed to get them up to speed.

 

Morphology Catch-up lessons are 45-minute lessons that include revision of previously taught morphemes, teaching of a new morpheme, and activities for practising the new morpheme (including a connected text).

 

Forty-five Catch-up lessons cover morphology from Phases two to four. These lessons should be used in place of the standard morphology lesson within the class’s phase. For example, if a Year Five class is working at Phase Four (but hasn’t learned any structured morphology before), they will forgo the standard morphology lesson (Lesson 4) and instead do a catch-up morphology lesson on this day.

Recommendations for Classes beginning in Phase 3 or 4

Recommendations for Classes beginning in Phase 3 or 4

Class at Phase
Morphology Catch-up Lessons

3

Lessons 1-12 (12 lessons)

4

Lessons 1-27 (27 lessons)

5

Teacher’s discretion about which morphemes to teach based on the class’s needs.

You can decide to do additional catch-up lessons to catch up faster but should consider their class’s needs when deciding whether to catch them up any faster

Teaching Morphology Lessons

Morphology lessons are a little less structured than phonology lessons. Teachers have more scope to allow exploratory discussions about words, not just those containing the new morpheme but other morphemes that pop up in the studied words.

In a catch-up morphology lesson to year six students on the prefix de- (from phase 3, week 23), following the introduction of de-, I asked students to share what words they believed had the prefix de-. One student responded with ‘decapitate’. Suddenly, we were discussing the root -capt- and -capit- (not taught until phase 7, week 2). Students took delight in discovering that ‘decapitate’ means the head going away from the body! Students were offering words like captain, captive and caption and seeing how -capt- / -capit- related to being taken, held, head or leader, depending on the word. Whilst not allowing the lesson sequence to be derailed, this was a teachable moment too critical to miss. It only took an additional minute but brought much joy and engagement as well as frontloading for the future teaching of -capt- and -capit- in phase seven.

You can always decide to do some additional morphology inspired by a Playberry Laser lesson at another time. The online Word Cracker, www.wordcracking.xyz, is an excellent resource for this outside of Playberry Laser lessons.

Standard Morphology Lesson

Introduction Lesson: Teaching a new morpheme

1. Morphology Card Drill

Using Morphology Deck and multisensory gestures

3-4 minutes

This is a multisensory routine where the students see the morpheme (front of card), chorally recite the meaning and make the multisensory gesture simultaneously. This drill is repeated in all morphology lessons to the point of automaticity and over-learning. The gestures on the back of the cards are only suggestions. A class can make up their own.

Morpheme cards are added to the deck once a morpheme has been taught as a new teaching point from the slides. The deck grows as each new morpheme is introduced. When the deck becomes too big, it can be halved, each half being reviewed on alternate lessons.

When retrieval of a card has become fast and automatic, move that card to a separate review pack to be revised weekly or fortnightly. If a morpheme has been forgotten, it can be reintroduced to the review deck at any stage.

 Daily review routine:

  • shuffle the deck
  • hold the deck facing the class – students will see the front card
  • Students say the type of morpheme as part of the routine:

“Prefix dif- means not.”

“Root word -flu- means to flow.”

We strongly recommend that students spell suffixes out using letter names. This makes it more likely that suffixes will be spelled correctly:

“Suffix i-s-e means to become like.”

“Suffix e–d means verb past tense.”

  • cards are placed down as they are completed
  • if multiple students make an error, place the card into a second pile and carry on
  • when the deck is complete, redo the cards that were put onto the second pile
  • if students error again, this morpheme may need to be retaught

Like with the Reading Card Deck, aim to bring the class up to a fast pace and keep them there. Otherwise, the pace will drop to an unengaging groan! The class must not be held to the pace of the slowest students. All students attend better if the pace is maintained. Going too slowly causes a drop in student attention.

2. Concept Revision

Concept and Rule Recitation

3-4 minutes

New morphemes are taught in the introduction lessons. An ‘I Do, We Do, You Do’ approach is used when each new morpheme is first taught. This morpheme is then reviewed in subsequent weeks using spaced retrieval practice. These slides also review some rules and concepts from phonology lessons.

Revision Drill

Morphology concept slides are read or recited aloud chorally with the whole class.

Like phonology rules and concepts, the slides begin with the complete rule or definition and then progress to having keywords blocked out so students have to retrieve them. 

The recitation of rules must be fast-paced; otherwise, engagement will be lost.

3. New Teaching Point

Introduce New Morpheme

3-4 minutes

The slides guide you through the introduction of the new morpheme. Use the language from the slides. The card for the new morpheme can be shown to students, and the class can decide on a multisensory gesture or learn the suggested gesture on the card.

Teaching Sequence

The teacher reads the learning intention from the screen and students listen, e.g., “Today we are learning about the root  -sect-”.

 The students and teacher then read the learning intention together.

 The teacher reads the meaning, e.g., “The root -sect- means divide or cut”.

 The students and teacher then read the meaning together.

You can switch between “I do” and “We do” as you please, and you may also do a “You do” and have students read without you as well.

Some slides provide an example word, and some don’t. If one isn’t provided, skip forward to the Words to Build slides and use the first word from that. In the lesson on root -sect-, ‘bisect’ can be used.

“An example word is ‘bisect’. Prefix bi- means ‘two’ and the root -sect- means ‘divide or cut’, so if we bisect something, we divide or cut it into two (usually equal) pieces.”

Of course, not all morpheme meanings are as easy to explain, and you may need to do some thinking about your explanation beforehand.

4. Words to Build

Students create their own sentence, including at least one of the words from their lexicon list.

5 minutes

Here, students and the teacher work from the slides to read and record words that contain the new morpheme.

These words are written into the provided worksheets (resources section) or a student workbook (the lexicon book), becoming a record of morphemes and example words.

Teaching Sequence

If students are recording the new morpheme in their books (not the worksheet), they need to begin by setting up their page by writing the morpheme at the top with its meaning. The words to build will be listed underneath.

The students and teacher then read the definition and word from the slide, e.g., “To cut something into pieces is to bisect it.”

The students record the word neatly in their workbooks or worksheets.

This is repeated for all Words to Build slides. Some words in the set may need a little explaining as the morpheme’s meaning may not be as transparent as in other words.

Turn and talk may be used for students to discuss possible meanings, and non-volunteers can be asked to respond to questions. It’s essential to ask the question to the whole class before using pop sticks to call on a non-volunteer to respond. Refer to the TAPPLE (EDI™) method.

5. Words to Read

6-8 Words to read, including the new morpheme.

1-2 minutes

Students, or students and the teacher, read the words chorally. Like in phonology lessons, if errors are made within the choral reading, the teacher prompts the class to re-read (decode if necessary).

At the end of the choral read, the teacher may ask a question and use pop sticks to check that students understand the morpheme and its meaning.  

6. Dictation

1-2 Sentences

5 minutes

Each lesson has at least one dictation sentence. These sentences are designed to practice writing words containing the new morpheme and previously taught material. Dictation is the most cognitively demanding task, so teachers must refrain from talking to the class while writing dictation sentences.

There are two ways that the dictation slides may be used.

Option 1:

  • students read the sentence from the screen chorally (twice)
  • go to the blank dictation slide, and students get ready to write
  • The teacher reads the sentence aloud again, and students repeat the sentence twice
  • students write the sentence
    • IMPORTANT – dictation should be completed in silence for students to hold the words in their working memory

Option 2:

  • start at the blank dictation slide
  • The teacher reads the sentence twice, and students repeat the sentence chorally twice
  • students write the sentence
    • IMPORTANT – dictation should be completed in silence for students to hold the words in their working memory

Use the dictation slide for students to check and correct their sentences. This can be done in many ways at the teacher’s discretion.

7. Sentence Creation

Students create their own sentence, including at least one word from their lexicon list.

3-4 minutes

 

Sentence creation can be taken in any direction you like, depending on what you have been working with in terms of sentence types. If the class was doing the lesson on -tent- -tens- or -tend-, you might ask students to:

  • Write a simple sentence using a -tent- -tens- or -tend- word.
  • Write an expanded sentence using but, because, or so with as many -tent- -tens- or –tend- words as possible.
  • Write a compound I, fanboys I sentence with as many -tent- -tens- or -tend- words as possible.
  • Write a complex ID sentence with as many -tent- -tens- or -tend- words as possible.
  • Write a complex D,I sentence with as many -tent- -tens- or -tend- words as possible.

Students can be asked to practise any sentence types they have learned during this activity.

8. Connected Text

Fluency Work: 

I Read, We Read, You Read, Choral Read or Paired Reading.

3-5 minutes

The text includes words from Phonology lessons (Phases 2-4) and the new morpheme.

Connected texts are included in each lesson, including words containing the new morpheme heart words and words with previously taught phonograms, spelling rules and concepts. The purpose of these texts is to develop passage reading fluency and to expand vocabulary.

Morphology Connected Texts

Each new morpheme has a connected text. It can be found on the downloadable Connected Text document for the corresponding Phase and Week. This is in the Resources section of the platform. You can search using the name of the morpheme. The Connected Texts can be used for fluency reading pairs, homework, and Tier 2 reading groups to support students’ reading.

OPTIONAL:  Morphology Independent Work Cards

There are Morphology Task cards for each Morpheme. These use the connected text to reinforce the new Morpheme. These can be set for independent work or as homework.

9. Vocabulary

1-3 Words from Connected Text (when required)

1-2 minutes

Some lessons have a vocabulary slide that defines any tier two or three vocabulary words used within the Connected Text for that day.

These can be discussed with students within the lesson. The teacher can also use them in more depth within other vocabulary teaching.

Review Morphology Lesson

Review Lessons

1. Morphology Card Drill

Using Morphology Deck and multisensory gestures

3-4 minutes

This is a multisensory routine where the students see the morpheme (front of card), chorally recite the meaning and make the multisensory gesture simultaneously. This drill is repeated in all morphology lessons to the point of automaticity and over-learning. The gestures on the back of the cards are only suggestions. A class can make up their own.

Morpheme cards are added to the deck once a morpheme has been taught as a new teaching point from the slides. The deck grows as each new morpheme is introduced. When the deck becomes too big, it can be halved, each half being reviewed on alternate lessons.

When retrieval of a card has become fast and automatic, move that card to a separate review pack to be revised weekly or fortnightly. If a morpheme has been forgotten, it can be reintroduced to the review deck at any stage.

 Daily review routine:

  • shuffle the deck
  • hold the deck facing the class – students will see the front card
  • Students say the type of morpheme as part of the routine:

“Prefix dif- means not.”

“Root word -flu- means to flow.”

We strongly recommend that students spell suffixes out using letter names. This makes it more likely that suffixes will be spelled correctly:

“Suffix i-s-e means to become like.”

“Suffix e–d means verb past tense.”

  • cards are placed down as they are completed
  • if multiple students make an error, place the card into a second pile and carry on
  • when the deck is complete, redo the cards that were put onto the second pile
  • if students error again, this morpheme may need to be retaught

Like with the Reading Card Deck, aim to bring the class up to a fast pace and keep them there. Otherwise, the pace will drop to an unengaging groan! The class must not be held to the pace of the slowest students. All students attend better if the pace is maintained. Going too slowly causes a drop in student attention.

2. Concept Revision

Concept and Rule Recitation

3-4 minutes

Revision Drill

Morphology concept slides are read or recited aloud chorally with the whole class.

Like phonology rules and concepts, the slides begin with the complete rule or definition and then progress to having keywords blocked out so students have to retrieve them. 

The recitation of rules must be fast-paced; otherwise, engagement will be lost.

3. Morphology Review

Use slides with clue sentences for words containing previously taught morphemes

4-5 minutes

 

In Phases Two to Five, a slide prompts students with a definition, and students try to guess the correct word (that contains a previously taught morpheme) and write it on their whiteboards. The following slide reveals the answer.

In Phases Six and Seven, a slide provides multiple choices, and students write their choices on their whiteboards.

The teacher, with or without the students, reads the definition from the screen, e.g., “A group of people moving forward can be called a…”.

The students write their choices on their whiteboards, and the answer is revealed, and students make any necessary corrections.

Alternatively, the teacher may ask for a pair share where students decide on an answer together and record it on their whiteboards. The teacher may also pull a pop-stick to check answers.

4. Word Sums and 

Words to Read

Students complete on whiteboards

4-6 minutes

Students independently write the solutions to the word sums on their whiteboards or workbooks (lexicons). Some words will need a spelling rule applied. Word sums will only require the use of spelling rules that have been previously taught.

Once completed, the students correct any errors. Next, the words are chorally read by the teacher and students, or the students.

 

 

5. Let’s use It!

A Range of activities

4-6 minutes

This range of engaging activities gets students working individually or in pairs to apply their knowledge.

Activities can be completed on student whiteboards or in lexicon student workbooks.

Teachers can check for understanding during the lesson or collect workbooks for marking. 

 

 

Catch-Up Morphology Lessons

Bringing classes up to speed

Catch-Up Morphology does NOT include dictation

1. Morphology Card Drill

Using Morphology Deck and multisensory gestures

3-4 minutes

This is a multisensory routine where the students see the morpheme (front of card), chorally recite the meaning and make the multisensory gesture simultaneously. This drill is repeated in all morphology lessons to the point of automaticity and over-learning. The gestures on the back of the cards are only suggestions. A class can make up their own.

Morpheme cards are added to the deck once a morpheme has been taught as a new teaching point from the slides. The deck grows as each new morpheme is introduced. When the deck becomes too big, it can be halved, each half being reviewed on alternate lessons.

When retrieval of a card has become fast and automatic, move that card to a separate review pack to be revised weekly or fortnightly. If a morpheme has been forgotten, it can be reintroduced to the review deck at any stage.

 Daily review routine:

  • shuffle the deck
  • hold the deck facing the class – students will see the front card
  • Students say the type of morpheme as part of the routine:

“Prefix dif- means not.”

“Root word -flu- means to flow.”

We strongly recommend that students spell suffixes out using letter names. This makes it more likely that suffixes will be spelled correctly:

“Suffix i-s-e means to become like.”

“Suffix e–d means verb past tense.”

  • cards are placed down as they are completed
  • if multiple students make an error, place the card into a second pile and carry on
  • when the deck is complete, redo the cards that were put onto the second pile
  • if students error again, this morpheme may need to be retaught

Like with the Reading Card Deck, aim to bring the class up to a fast pace and keep them there. Otherwise, the pace will drop to an unengaging groan! The class must not be held to the pace of the slowest students. All students attend better if the pace is maintained. Going too slowly causes a drop in student attention.

2. Concept Revision

Concept and Rule Recitation

2 minutes

Revision Drill

Morphology concept slides are read or recited aloud chorally with the whole class.

Like phonology rules and concepts, the slides begin with the complete rule or definition and then progress to having keywords blocked out so students have to retrieve them. 

The recitation of rules must be fast-paced; otherwise, engagement will be lost.

3. Morphology Review

Use slides with clue sentences for words containing previously taught morphemes

4-5 minutes

 

Slides prompt students with a definition, and students try to guess the correct word (that contains a previously taught morpheme) and write it on their whiteboards. The following slide reveals the answer.

The teacher, with or without the students, reads the definition from the screen, e.g., “A group of people moving forward can be called a…”.

The students write their choices on their whiteboards, and the answer is revealed, and students make any necessary corrections.

Alternatively, the teacher may ask for a pair share where students decide on an answer together and record it on their whiteboards. The teacher may also pull a pop-stick to check answers.

4. New Teaching Point

Introduce New Morpheme

3-4 minutes

The slides guide you through the introduction of the new morpheme. Use the language from the slides. The card for the new morpheme can be shown to students, and the class can decide on a multisensory gesture or learn the suggested gesture on the card.

 The teacher reads the learning intention from the screen, e.g., “Today we are learning about the root -sect-”.

 The students and teacher then read the learning intention together.

 The teacher reads the meaning, e.g., “The root -sect- means divide or cut”.

 The students and teacher then read the meaning together.

The teacher reads the learning intention from the screen and students listen, e.g., “Today we are learning about the root  -sect-”.

The students and teacher then read the learning intention together.

The teacher reads the meaning, e.g., “The root -sect- means divide or cut”.

The students and teacher then read the meaning together.

You can switch between “I do” and “We do” as you please, and you may also do a “You do” and have students read without you as well.

Some slides provide an example word, and some don’t. If one isn’t provided, skip forward to the Words to Build slides and use the first word from that. In the lesson on root -sect-, ‘bisect’ can be used.

“An example word is ‘bisect’. Prefix bi- means ‘two’ and the root -sect- means ‘divide or cut’, so if we bisect something, we divide or cut it into two (usually equal) pieces.”

Of course, not all morpheme meanings are as easy to explain, and you may need to do some thinking about your explanation beforehand.

5. Words to Build

Students create their own sentence, including at least one of the words from their lexicon list.

3 minutes

Here, students and the teacher work from the slides to read and record words that contain the new morpheme.

These words are written into the provided worksheets (resources section) or a student workbook (the lexicon book), becoming a record of morphemes and example words.

Teaching Sequence

If students are recording the new morpheme in their books (not the worksheet), they need to begin by setting up their page by writing the morpheme at the top with its meaning. The words to build will be listed underneath.

The students and teacher then read the definition and word from the slide, e.g., “To cut something into pieces is to bisect it.”

The students record the word neatly in their workbooks or worksheets.

This is repeated for all Words to Build slides. Some words in the set may need a little explaining as the morpheme’s meaning may not be as transparent as in other words.

Turn and talk may be used for students to discuss possible meanings, and non-volunteers can be asked to respond to questions. It’s essential to ask the question to the whole class before using pop sticks to call on a non-volunteer to respond. Refer to the TAPPLE (EDI™) method.

6. Words to Read

6-8 Words to read, including the new morpheme.

1-2 minutes

Students, or students and the teacher, read the words chorally. Like in phonology lessons, if errors are made within the choral reading, the teacher prompts the class to re-read (decode if necessary).

At the end of the choral read, the teacher may ask a question and use pop sticks to check that students understand the morpheme and its meaning.  

7. Sentence Creation

Students create their own sentence, including at least one word from their lexicon list.

3-4 minutes

 

Sentence creation can be taken in any direction you like, depending on what you have been working with in terms of sentence types. If the class was doing the lesson on -tent- -tens- or -tend-, you might ask students to:

  • Write a simple sentence using a -tent- -tens- or -tend- word.
  • Write an expanded sentence using but, because, or so with as many -tent- -tens- or –tend- words as possible.
  • Write a compound I, fanboys I sentence with as many -tent- -tens- or -tend- words as possible.
  • Write a complex ID sentence with as many -tent- -tens- or -tend- words as possible.
  • Write a complex D,I sentence with as many -tent- -tens- or -tend- words as possible.

Students can be asked to practise any sentence types they have learned during this activity.

8. Word Sums and 

Words to Read

Students complete on whiteboards

4-6 minutes

Students independently write the solutions to the word sums on their whiteboards or workbooks (lexicons). Some words will need a spelling rule applied. Word sums will only require the use of spelling rules that have been previously taught.

Once completed, the students correct any errors. Next, either the teacher or the students chorally read the words.

EXTENSION IDEAS: For quick finishers:

Ask them to find and annotate any words where a spelling rule has been applied. Has an ‘e’ been dropped, or is a final consonant on the root doubled? 

Can they label definitions of the morphemes in any of the words?

Can students think of other words with the target morpheme and add them to their list?

 

 

9. Let’s use It!

A Range of activities

4-6 minutes

This range of engaging activities gets students working individually or in pairs to apply their knowledge.

Activities can be completed on student whiteboards or in lexicon student workbooks.

Teachers can check for understanding during the lesson or collect workbooks for marking. 

 

 

10. Connected Text

Fluency Work: 

I Read, We Read, You Read, Choral Read or Paired Reading.

3-5 minutes

The text includes words from Phonology lessons (Phases 2-4) and the new morpheme.

Connected texts are included in each lesson, including words containing the new morpheme heart words and words with previously taught phonograms, spelling rules and concepts. The purpose of these texts is to develop passage reading fluency and to expand vocabulary.

Morphology Connected Texts

Each new morpheme has a connected text. It can be found on the downloadable Connected Text document for the corresponding Phase and Week. This is in the Resources section of the platform. You can search using the name of the morpheme. The Connected Texts can be used for fluency reading pairs, homework, and Tier 2 reading groups to support students’ reading.

OPTIONAL: Morphology Independent Work Cards

There are Morphology Task cards for each Morpheme. These use the connected text to reinforce the new morpheme. These can be set for independent work or as homework.

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